Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) and serum CA-125 measurement in women at different risk of developing ovarian cancer/fallopian tube cancer (OC/FTC) and the incidence of primary peritoneal cancer (PPC) after risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO). Methods: Between 2002 and 2014, 661 women at different risk of OC/FTC/PPC due to a family history or BRCA1/2 gene mutation were offered TVU and CA-125 measurement or RRSO as prevention strategies. The detection rate of OC/FTC/PPC was evaluated, and the sensitivity and specificity for CA-125 measurement and TVU were calculated. Survival and event analysis was performed for diagnosed patients. Results: After a median follow-up of 112 months, 12 OC/FTC/PPC cases were detected (2.6/1,000 persons/ year). The screening sensitivity was 70%, with 73% for BRCA carriers. Six (50%) of 12 cancers were stage I or II. Among 41 women who underwent RRSO, 2 BRCA1 carriers developed a PPC (4.9%). At 61-month follow-up, overall and event-free survival were 75 and 64%, respectively. Conclusions: The cancer detection rate in women with BRCA mutation or a strong family history supports the effectiveness of our surveillance program for early diagnosis. Screening for women at lower risk of OC/FTC is not recommended. A residual risk of PPC after RRSO remains for BRCA1 carriers.

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